Ahren DC 1994. Meteorology Today, Ed 5. West Publishing Company.

Ando M, Seishiro H, and Itoh Y 1985. Transfer of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from mother to new-born baby through placenta and milk. Arch. Toxicol. 56:195-200.

Atlas E and Giam CS 1981 Global Transport of Organic Pollutants: Ambient
Concentrations in the Remote Marine Atmosphere SCIENCE 211(4478):163-165

Ballester F, Sala M, Sunyer J, and Grimalt J 2000. Serum concentrations of hexachlorobenzene in family members of workers in an electrochemical factory. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 26(1):67-70.

Basu I, O'Dell JM, Arnold K and Hites RA 2000. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers. Environnemental Sciences & Technology. 34:527-529.

Baxi LV, Rubeo TJ, Katz B and Harber LC 1983. Porphyria cutanea tarda and pregnancy American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 146(3) :333

Becher H, Steindorf K, and Flesch-Janys, D. 1998. Quantitative risk assessment for dioxins using an occupational cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106 (2):663-670

Bidleman TF, Wideqvist U, Jansson B and Svderlund R 1987. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of southern Sweden: Atmospheric Environ. 21(3):641-654

Bleavins MR, Aulerich RJ and Ringer RK 1983. Hexachlorobenzene-induced effects on the lymphocyte blastogenic response to concanavalin A in the mink and european ferret. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2: 411-418.

Bleavins MR, Aulerich RJ and Ringer RK 1984. Effects of chronic dietary hexachlorobenzene exposure on the repreductive performance and surcicability of mink and European ferrets. Archives of Environmental Toxicology. 13: 357-365.

Boersma DC and Ellenton JA 1985. Investigation of the hepatic mixed-function oxidase system in herring gull embryos in relation to environmental contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5: 309-318.

Braune BM and Norstrom RJ 1989. Dynamics of organochloring compounds in herring gulls: III. Tissue Distribution and bioaccumulation in Lake Ontario gulls. Environmetal Toxicology and Chemistry. 8: 957-968.

Bruckmann P and Kersten W 1988. The Occurrence of Chlorinated and Other Organic
Trace Compounds in Urban Air. Chemosphere 17:2363-2380.

Burns JE and Miller FM 1975. Hexachlorobenzene contamination: Its effects in a
Louisiana population. Arch Environ Health 30:44-48

Cam C and Nigogosyan G 1963. Acquired toxic porphyria cutanea tarda due to hexachlorobenzene. Journal of the American Medical Association 183:88-91

Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). 1993. Hexachlorobenzene: Priority Substances List. Canada Communication Group Publishing, Ottowa.

Carlson AR and Kosian. 1987. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to Fathead Minnows (Pimephals promelas). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 16: 129-135.

Chevreuil M, Garmouma M, Teil MJ, Chesterikoff A 1996 Occurrence of organochlorines (PCBs, pesticides) and herbicides (triazines, phenylureas) in the
atmosphere and in the fallout from urban and rural stations of the Paris area Science of the total environment 182 (1-3):25-37

Cobb GP, Norman DM and Kendall RJ 1994. Organochlorine contaminant assessment in great blue herons using traditional and nonlethal monitoring techniques. Environmental Pollution. 83:299-309.

Cotham WE and Bidleman TF 1991. Estimating the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to the Arctic. Chemosphere. 22:165-188.

Courtney KD 1979. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB): A Review Environmental Research 20:225-266

Cripps DJ, Peters HA, Gocmen A and Dogramici I 1984. Porphyria turcica due to hexachlorobenzene: a 20 to 30 year follow-up study on 204 patients. British Journal of Dermatology. 111:413-422

Currier MF, McClimans CD and Barna-Lloyd G 1980. Hexachlorobenzene blood levels and the health status of men employed in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 6:367-377

Czaja K, Ludwicki JK, Goralczyk K and Strucinski P 1997 Organochlorine Pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in Human Milk in Poland. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58 :769-775

Daniel DE and Koerner RM 1995. Waste Containment Facilities: Guidance for Construction, Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Liner and Cover Systems. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York.

De Mola JRL, Muise KL and Duchon MA 1996. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Pregnancy Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 51(8):493-497

Den Tonkelaar EM, Verschueren HG, Bankovska J, De Vries T, Kroes R and Van Esch
G 1978. Hexachlorobenzen toxicity in pigs. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 43:137-145

Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Bruneau S, Laliberte C, Muir DC and Norstrom RJ 1993. Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec Environ Health Perspect. 101(7):618-620.

Didier G and Comeaga L 1997. "Influence of Initial Hydration Conditions on GCL Leachate Permeability", Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, US. 181-195.

Eisenreich SJ, Looney BB, and Thornton JD 1981. Airbourne organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem: Environmental Science and Technology. 15(1):30-38

Eschenroeder A. 1986. Hexachlorobenzene fate-modelling for risk assessment. In: Morris, C.R., and J.R.P. Cabral, eds. Hexachlorobenzene: Proceedings of an International Symposium. International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC Scientific Publications. No. 77, Lyon, France. 31-37.

Fellin P, Barrie LA, Dougherty D, Toom D, Muir D, Grift N, Lockhart L and
Billeck B 1996. Air monitoring in the Arctic; results for selected persistent organic pollutants for 1992. Envir. Toxic. and Chem. 15: 253-261

Geike F and Parasher CD 1976a. Effect of hexachlorobenzene on some growth parameters of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 15: 670-677.

Geike F and Parasher CD 1976b. Effect of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on growth of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 16: 347-354.

Gobas FAPC, Bedard DC, Ciborowski JJH and Haffner GD 1989. Bioaccumulation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by mayfly (Hexagenia limbata) in Lake St. Clair. J. Great Lakes Research. 15: 581-588.

Greve PA and van Zoonen P 1990. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in tissues
from Dutch citizens (1968-1986). Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 38: 265-277.

Gribble GW 1994. Natural Chlorine? You Bet! American Council on Science and Health

Grimalt JO, Sunyer J, Moreno V, Amaral OC, Sala M, Rosell A, Anto JM and Albaiges J 1994. Risk excess of soft-tissue sarcoma and thyroid cancer in a community exposed to airborne organochlorinated compound mixtures with a high hexachlorobenzene content. Int. J. Cancer. 56: 200-203.

Herrero C, Ozalla D, Sala M, Otero R, Santiago-Silva M, Lecha M, To-Figueras J, Deulofeu R, Mascaro JM, Grimalt JO and Sunyer J.. 1999. Urinary porphyrin excretion in a human population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene. Arch Dermatol. 135: 400-404.

Hewitt RD, Soydemir C, Stulgis RP and Coombs MT 1997. "Effect of Normal Stress During Hydration and Shear on the Shear Stength of GCL / Txtured Geomembrane Interfaces", Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, US. 55-70.

Hoff RM et al. 1992. Annual cycle of organohalogen pesticides and
polychlorinated biphenyls in air in southern Ontario. 2. Atmospheric transport and
sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26: 276-283.

Iwata H, Tanabe S, Ueda K and Tatsukawa R. 1995. Persistent organochlorine residues in
air, water, sediments, and soil from Lake Baikal, region Russia. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29:792-801.

Jarrell J, Gocmen A, Foster W, Brant R, Chan S, Sevcik M. 1998. Evaluation of reproductive outcome in women inadvertently exposed to hexachlorobenzene in southeastern Turkey in the 1950s. Reproductive Toxicology. 12(4): 469-476.

Jung D, Berg PA, Edler L, Ehrenthal W, Fenner D, Flesch-Janys D, Huber C, Klein R, Koitka C, Lucier G, Manz A, Muttray A, Needham L, Papke O, Pietsch M, Portier C, Patterson D, Prellwitz W, Rose DM, Thews A and Konietzko J. 1998. Immunologic findings in workers formerly exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and its congeners. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106 (2):689-695

Kaiser KLE, Oliver BG, Charlton MN, Nicol KD and Comba ME 1990. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls in St. Lawrence River sediments. Science of the Total Environment. 97/98: 495-506.

Knap AH, Binkley KS and Artz RS 1988. The occurrence and distribution of trace
organic compounds in Bermuda precipitation. Atmos. Environ. 22 (7):411-423.

Koerner RM 1997. "Perspectives on Geosynthetic Clay Liners", Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, US. 3-22.

Koss G, Losekam M, Seidel J, Steinbach K, Koransky W 1987. Inhibitory effect of
tetrachloro-p-hydroquinone and other metabolites of hexachlorobenzene on hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity with reference to the role of glutathione. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 514:148-159.

Krauthacker B 1993. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in
human serum collected from the general population from Zagreb (1985-1990).Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 50(1):8-11

Kucklick JR, Harvey HR and Ostrom PH 1996. Organochlorine dynamics in the pelagic food web of Lake Baikal. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 15(8): 1388-1400.

Langlois C and Langis R 1995. Presence of airborne contaminants in the wildlife of northern Quebec. The Science of the Total Environment. 160/161: 391-402.

Leger DA 1991. Environmental concentrations of hexachlorobenzene in Atlantic Canada Inland Waters Directorate. Environment Canada, Moncton, New Brunswick.

Loffler G and van Bavel B 2000. Potential pathways and exposure to explain the human body burden of organochlorine compounds: a multivariate statistical analysis of human monitoring in Wurzburg, Germany. Chemosphere. 40: 1075-1082.

MacKay D and Paterson S 1981. Calculating fugacity. Environmental Science and Technology. 15: 1006-1015.

MacLaren Marex Inc. 1979. Report on an environmental survey for chlorobenzenes at four coastal sites in Nova Scotia. Report prepared for Envrionmental Protection Serveice, Environment Canada, Darmouth, Nova Scotia.

McGregor DB, Partensky C, Wilbourn J, Rice JM. 1998. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106 (2):755-760

Merrill KS and O'Brien AJ 1997. "Strength and Conformance Testing of a GCL Used in a Solid Waste Landfill Lining System", Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, US. 71-88.

Michielsen CC, van Loveren H and Vos JG 1999. The role of the immune system in
hexachlorobenzene-induced toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 107
suppl 5: 783-792.

Mill T and Haag W 1986. The environmental fate of hexachlorobenzene. In: CR Morris, and JRP Cabral, eds. Hexachlorobenzene: Proceedings of an International Symposium. International Agency for Research on Cance, IARC Scientific Publications No. 77, Lyon, France. 61-66.

Monosmith CL and Hermanson MH 1996. Spatial and temporal trends of
atmospheric organochlorine vapors in the central and upper Great Lakes. Environ. Science and Technology 30:3464-3472

Moore DRJ, Breton RL and Lloyd K 1996. The effects of hexachlorobenzene on mink in the Canadian environment: An ecological risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 16(5): 1042-1050.

Muir DCG, Wagemann R, Grift NP, Norstrom RJ, Simon M and Lien J 1988. Organochlorine chemical and heavy metal contaminants in white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and pilot whales (Globicephala melaena) from the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 17: 613-629.

Mukerjee D 1998 Health impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: A critical review. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 48:157-165

Nagy KA 1986. Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecological Monographs 57(2): 111-128.

Nakashima Y, Ohsawa S, Umegaki K and Ikegami S. 1997. Hexachlorobenzene
accumulated by dams during pregnancy is transferred to suckling rats during early lactation. Nutrition, Pharmacology and Toxicology. 127(4): 648-654.

Needham LL, Burse VW and Head SL 1990. Adipose tissue/serum partitioning of
chlorinated hydrocarbons pesticides in humans. Chemosphere 20:975-980

Noren K 1993. Contemporary and retrospective investigations of human milk in the trend
studies of organochlorine contaminants in Sweden. Sci Total Environ. 139-140:347-355.

Norstrom RJ, Hallett DJ and Sonstegard RA 1978. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) as indicators of organochlorine contamination in Lake Ontario. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35: 1401-1409.

Norstrom RJ, Simon M and Muir DCG 1990. Polychloringated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in marine mammals in the Canadian north. Environmental Pollution. 66: 1-19.

Okamua K, Nakashima T, Ueda K, Inoue K, Omae T and Fujishima M 1987 Thyroid
disorders in the general population of Hisayama Japan, with special reference to prevalence and sex differences. International journal of epidemiology 16 (4):545-549

Oliver BG 1984. Distribution and Pathways of Some Chlorinated Benzenes in the Niagara River and Lake Ontario. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada. 19(1): 669-680.

Pacyna JM and Oehme M 1988. Long-range transport of some organic compounds to
the Norwegian arctic: Atmospheric Environ. 22(2):243-257

Park JK, Sakti JP and Hoopes JA 1996. "Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Permeation Through Geomembranes," Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment, ASTIM STP 1261, W, Wang, J. Schnoor, and J. Doi, New-York, US. 245-258.

Peakall DB, Noble DG, Elliott JE, Somers JD and Erikson G 1990. Environmental contaminants in Canadian peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus: A toxicological assessment. Canadian Field-Naturlist 104: 244-254.

Pollitt F 1999. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology. 30(2.2):S63-68

Poole KG, Elkin BT and Bethke RW 1997. Organochloring and heavy metal contaminants in wild mink in western Northwest Territories, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 34: 406-413.

Popp P, Bruggemann L, Keil P, Thuss U and Weiss H 2000. Chlorobenzenes and
hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the atmosphere of Bitterfeld and Leipzig
Germany. Chemosphere. 41:849-855.

Queiroz MLS, Bincoletto C, Perlingeiro RC, Quadros MR and Souza CA 1998. Immunoglobulin levels in workers exposed to hexachlorobenzene. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 17:172-175.

Queiroz MLS, Bincoletto C, Perlingeiro RC, Souza CA and Toledo H 1997. Defective neutrophil function in workers occupationally exposed to hexachlorobenzene. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 16:322-326.

Robson L, Zalewski A and Webster E 1999. Level III Version 2.20 Fugacity-Based Environmental Equilibrium Partitioning Model. Environmental Modelling Center, Trent University. Peterborough, Ontario.

Rozman K, Rozman T and Greim H 1981. Enhanced fecal elimination of stored hexachlorobenzene from rats and rhesus monkeys by hexadecane or mineral oil. Toxicology 22:33-44

Safe SH 2000. Endocrine disruptors and human health - Is there a problem? An update.
Environnemantal Health Perspect. 108(6):487-493.

Sala M, Sunyer J, Otero R, Santiago-Silva M, Ozalla D, Herrero C, To-Figueras J, Kogevinas M, Anto JM, Camps C and Grimalt JO 1999. Health effects of chronic high exposure to hexachlorobenzene in a general population sample. Arch. of Environ Health. 54(2):102-109.

Seibken J, Swan RH Jr. and Yuan Z 1997. "Short-Term and Creep Shear Characteristics of a Needlepunched Thermally Locked Geosynthetic Clay Liner.", Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, US. 89-102.

Shan HY and Daniel DE 1991. Results of Laboratory Tests on a geotextile/Bentonite Liner Material. Geosynthetic '91 Conference, Atlanta, USA. 517-535.

Skaare JU and Polder A. 1990 Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in milk of Norwegian women during lactation. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.19(5): 640-645

To-Figueras J, Barrot C, Sala M, Otero R, Silva M, Ozalla MD, Herrero C, Corbella J, Grimalt JO and Sunyer J 2000. Excretion of hexachlorobenzene and metabolites in feces in a highly exposed human population. Environmental Health Perspective. 108(7):595-598.

To-Figueras J, Sala M, Otero R, Barrot C, Santiago-Silva M, Rodamilans M, Herrero C, Grimalt JO and Sunyer J 1997. Metabolism of hexachlorobenzene in humans: Association between serum levels and urinary metabolites in a highly exposed population Environ Health Perspec. 105(1):78-83

Trauger RJ, Swan RH Jr and Yuan Z. 1997. "Long-Term Shear Strength Behavior of a Needlepunched Geosynthetic Clay Liner", Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, USA. 103-120 .

Triebig G, Werle E, Papke O, Heim G, Broding C and Ludwig H 1998. Effects of dioxins and furans on liver enzymes, lipid parameters, and thyroid hormones in former thermal metal recycling workers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106 (2):697-700

Van Birgelen AP. 1998 Hexachlorobenzene as a possible major contributor to the dioxin
activity of human milk. Environ Health Perspect. 106(11):683-688.

Van der Ven K, van der Ven H, Thibold A, Bauer O, Kaisi M, Mbura J, Mgaya HN,
Weber N, Diedrich K and Krebs D 1992. Chlorinated hydrocarbon content of fetal and maternal body tissues and fluids in full term pregnant women: a comparison of Germany versus Tanzania. Hum Reprod. 7 Suppl 1:95-100.

Van Jaarsveld J, Hans A, Van Pul W and Addo J. 1995. Organic Pollutant Accumulation in Vegetation. Environmental Science and Technology 29(12): 2905-2914.

Van Loveren H, Krajnc EI, Rombout PJ, Blommaert FA and Vos JG 1990. Effects of ozone, hexachlorobenzene, and bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide on natural killer activity in the rat lung. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 102(1):21-33.

Vos JG 1986. Immunotoxicity of hexachlorobenzene. In Hexachlorobenzene: Proceedings of an international symposium (C.R. Morris and J. R. P. Cabral, Eds.), pp347-356 International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon

Wang MJ and Jones KC 1994. Occurrence of chlorobenzenes in nine United Kingdom retail vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 42:2322-2328

Weseloh DV, Chip JR, Blokpoel H and Ewins PJ 1997. Contaminant Concentrations in Eggs of Black Terns (Chlidonias niger) from Southern Ontario and Southern Quebec, 1989-1996. Colonial Waterbirds 20(3): 604-616.

Wickstrom K, Pyysalo H and Martti AS 1983. Levels of Chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, PCB and DDT compounds in Finnish human milk in 1982. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 31:251-256

Wittlinger R and Ballschmiter K 1987.Global Baseline Pollution Studies X: Congener
Specific Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Occurence.
Chemosphere 16:2497-2513.

World Health Organization (WHO) IPCS Environmental health criteria for hexachlorobenzene. No. 195 Geneva: World Health Organization 1997

Diabetes mellitus a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whereby sugars cannot be metabolized to produce energy due to lack of the pancreatic hormone insulin.

Groundwater Contamination
Risks Of Volatilization
Health Effects
Ecological Effects
Glossary and Appendix
Our Group

Introduction | Groundwater Contamination

Risks Of Volatilization | Health Effects| Ecological Effects

Glossary | References | Our Group